Stats NZ, together with an advisory group of Māori and government agency members, has revised the Iwi statistical standard. The standard provides requirements and guidelines for how to gather, organise, and report iwi and iwi-related groups’ information and statistics.
This document provides some answers to questions you may have about how we revised the standard and how it has changed. These questions are grouped by the following topics:
- Changes to the standard
- Changes to the iwi classification (list)
- Accessing information and statistics
- Effect of the changes
- Using the iwi statistical standard
- Collecting iwi information
- Answering a question on iwi
- Recommendations for future work
- General information about standards.
See Iwi statistical standard: Draft April 2017 for the updated standard and to provide feedback on the changes.
Questions about the iwi statistical standard
We’ve divided a selection of frequently asked questions into the sections outlined below.
Changes to the standard
Who did you work with to update the standard? Did you consult iwi and Māori?
We worked with an advisory group of Māori and government agency members to review and update the iwi standard. This group met regularly through the review to provide expert advice.
We consulted with iwi, Māori, government, researchers, and the public, to get feedback on the descriptions of iwi (concept and definition), conditions for inclusion, classification (list), and guidelines used in the iwi standard. Their wide-ranging feedback helped us develop written recommendations for revising the iwi standard.
See Statistical standard for iwi: consultation and research findings and recommendations for the written recommendations from the review, and a discussion of the review findings.
Why are you making changes to the standard?
The original iwi standard was developed in 1994. This latest review is the first review of the whole standard since then. To ensure the standard meets the current and future needs of iwi, Māori, government, and others, we worked with other government agencies and Māori to review the standard.
The changes made to the standard were guided by feedback from people who use the standard and advice from an advisory group of Māori and government agency members. This included feedback on the descriptions of iwi (concept and definition), conditions for inclusion, classification (list), and guidelines used in the iwi standard.
See Discussion of findings from the statistical standard for iwi for a summary of feedback.
What are the key changes to the standard?
The changes made to the standard reflect submissions and feedback that led to recommendations from the review of the iwi standard.
Key changes include:
- highlighting that the standard is for statistical purposes
- updating the concept and definition of iwi
- changing the process used to include groups in the iwi classification (list).
We worked with an advisory group of Māori and government agency members to make these changes.
Is it too late to give feedback for further change to the standard?
It’s not too late to provide feedback – we want to hear your views.
We are meeting with some groups, and are also inviting email and written submissions on the updated standard between 6 April 2017 and 4 May 2017.
See Iwi statistical standard: Draft April 2017 for the updated standard and to provide feedback on the changes.
Why did it take so long to review this standard?
Much background work was done to support a plan to revise the standard. This included different types of research, gathering feedback from a range of people who use the standard, and discussing our findings with Māori and government agency members. This work was important to ensure changes made to the standard will support iwi, Māori, government, researchers, and others in the future.
See Summary of the iwi statistical standard review to see a timeline of the review and a summary of the work we’ve published.
When is the next review of the standard?
The iwi standard will have regular reviews following feedback from iwi, Māori, government, researchers, and others.
We’ll update the iwi classification (list) each year, or more often when there is a need. For instance, it may need updating in response to a query from an iwi, Māori authority, government agency, or before a specific collection or survey.
See Classifications and standards review process.
Changes to the iwi classification (list)
How have you changed the way groups get into the classification (list)?
Groups are included in the iwi classification if they are listed as an iwi in another recognised iwi list, such as Te Kāhui Māngai, Tūhono, or the Māori Fisheries Act 2014. We encourage kinship groups that are not in a recognised iwi list to provide information for the group to consider their inclusion.
This includes information about whether a group has:
- a shared Māori descent line and its own traditions
- one or more active marae – these do not need to be physical buildings
- a recognised structure that represents the interests of the iwi, such as a rōpū whakahaere, committee, or board.
Together with other government agencies and in partnership with Māori, Stats NZ will consider the information a group provides for inclusion.
Email firstname.lastname@example.org if your group is missing from the iwi classification. Your group will be invited to complete a form, which asks for information about the new conditions for inclusion.
What Māori expertise was involved in changing how groups are included in the classification (list)?
We worked with an advisory group of Māori and government agency members. This group met regularly through the review to provide expert advice. Submissions received from iwi, Māori, government, researchers, and the public also helped us decide what information to consider when adding new groups to the classification (list).
Why are you changing the way you include groups in the classification (list)?
We first used the iwi classification in the 1991 Census. Since then, we’ve included other iwi groups if they met the criteria in the iwi standard.
We worked with other government agencies and Māori to develop new conditions and a new process for including groups in the iwi classification. This new process is more current, inclusive, and transparent than the previous criteria were.
My iwi was in the previous classification (list) but will it be in this new classification?
All groups that were in the previous iwi classification will be in the new one.
How can I get my group added to the classification?
See iwi classification. If your group is missing please let us know.
Email email@example.com. Your group will be invited to complete a form, which asks for information about the new conditions for inclusion.
I see iwi-related groups are included in the iwi classification (list). What is an ‘iwi-related group’?
Iwi-related groups are defined as whakapapa-based kinship groupings with a Māori descent line, such as a waka grouping or confederation. Groups such as these were in the previous classification.
Why have you added hapū to the classification (list)?
We haven’t added hapū to the iwi classification. For statistical purposes, groups are included in the iwi classification if they fit the description (concept and definition) of iwi used in the standard. However, outside Stats NZ, there may be debate about the hapū or iwi status of a particular group. For the iwi classification, we use the conditions for inclusion and expert advice provided by Māori advisors and other government members to classify a group as an iwi.
Some groups in the iwi classification might not be considered to be an iwi in every situation, such as in legislation, by other recognised iwi lists, or by other Māori authorities.
Why is this classification (list) different to other iwi lists?
Our classification may differ from other lists because, in other situations, different definitions and conditions are used to include groups in iwi lists.
Why are non-kinship groupings not included in the new classification (list)?
The iwi classification covers whakapapa-based kinship groupings. Non-kinship Māori groupings, such as urban marae, aren’t included in the classification because they don’t meet this condition.
When they answer a question on iwi and there is a write-in box for collection, some people may write the names of non-kinship Māori groupings they belong to. This information can be requested from Stats NZ, but it may not be available from other agencies and organisations.
Accessing information and statistics
What information can groups in the iwi classification (list) access?
Iwi and iwi-related groups in the classification will have access to information about themselves through our different products, services, and tools. Other government agencies and collections may offer access to different products and services.
What information can groups not in the iwi classification (list) access?
You can access census information from Stats NZ on Māori groupings that aren’t in the iwi standard classification by requesting the ‘response list report’ for your group. This may involve a cost. A response list report provides the number of written responses to the iwi question that are whakapapa-based.
If the numbers don’t cause a privacy or confidentiality concern by allowing a person to be identified, the response report can include more information, such as age, sex, occupation, or areas where people live.
Information on groups that aren’t in the iwi standard classification may not be available from other organisations and agencies.
See Privacy, security, and confidentiality of information supplied to Statistics NZ for our guidelines around confidentiality and privacy.
See 2013 Census confidentiality rules and how they are applied. The confidentiality rules for the planned 2018 Census are not yet decided.
What support is available for iwi and other Māori groupings that want access to their information?
Government agencies other than Stats NZ have their own processes for providing support and access to iwi information.
Iwi information from Stats NZ is available online or through a customised request.
Iwi information in different formats, or with extra information (eg age, sex, or occupation), can be accessed through a customised data request. This may involve a cost.
We also have a Data Lab for approved researchers to access confidentialised person-level data for specific research projects.
Use the information request form, or phone (0508 525 525) or email (firstname.lastname@example.org) us if you need help using our online tools or finding the iwi statistics you are looking for.
What iwi information will be available from 2018 Census? Will we still get our iwi profiles?
We will provide a range of information for iwi, Māori, and other people using 2018 Census data. Some information may look different from previous censuses, such as iwi profiles, as we move to improve what we provide.
The Census team is working to confirm the information and format that will be available.
How will Stats NZ make iwi and Māori information available?
We are developing a new online tool for you to access iwi and Māori information and statistics. An early version of this tool can be accessed on the Stats NZ Alpha website.
The iwi tool brings together information from the 2013 Census and the 2013 Te Kupenga survey. We will update the tool with information as it comes to hand through our surveys.
You will be able to interact with the information and group it by different topics, such as te reo, education, and social well-being. We are developing other features as part of the new iwi tool.
Is iwi information in the IDI?
The integrated data infrastructure (IDI) is a large research database that includes information from many sources, such as government agencies, non-government agencies, and census. This information is used by approved researchers to answer research, policy, and evaluation questions.
Iwi information from census is available in the IDI, but there is very little iwi information in the IDI from other sources.
See Integrated data infrastructure for more information about the IDI.
Who can access my group’s information in the IDI?
Researchers must go through our official approval process to gain access to information in the IDI. Researchers get access only to the information related to their research. Research applications are assessed and a final decision is made by the Government Statistician or their delegate.
The Government Statistician must be satisfied that:
- the information to be supplied is to be used solely for genuine research or statistical purposes in relation to a matter of public interest
- the organisation or research team has the necessary research experience, knowledge, and skills to access and use the information
- the security of the information will not be impaired
- there are no other alternatives to answer the research question.
How is my privacy protected?
Any research and researcher has a tough screening process to gain access to IDI information. No person can be identifiable in the information a researcher has access to.
See How we keep IDI data safe using the Five Safes framework.
See Privacy, security, and confidentiality of information supplied to Statistics NZ for Stats NZ's guidelines around confidentiality and privacy.
Effect of the changes
Will the changes to the iwi classification (list) affect Treaty of Waitangi settlements?
The chief use of the iwi classification is to provide statistical information for iwi, Māori, government, and other people working with Māori. Other agencies and organisations may use the classification for different purposes.
We suggest you raise any concern about settlements directly with the Office of Treaty Settlements.
Can we compare iwi statistics produced using the updated classification (list), with statistics from the former classification?
Iwi groupings affected by a decrease in their population, due to a new category being introduced, will have the option of adding that new category into their count. Doing this will make iwi statistics produced using the updated classification comparable with those from the previous version.
Can new iwi in the classification get time-series information from previous surveys?
Time series provide a count of responses over the different years a survey or collection is run. Adding new iwi and iwi-related groups to the iwi classification may affect time-series information.
Time series may change when the classification is updated because some responses will go to a new category or categories. This decreases the numbers in their original iwi categories.
We may use back-casting when we add a new iwi or iwi-related group to the classification, and their information from past surveys or collections is available. Back-casting means that responses from past collections are counted in the new category rather than the former iwi category. In this way the group added to the classification can have their information from past surveys or collections.
We will develop a concordance (mapping) that links iwi categories between different versions of the classification. This shows where iwi groups have been split, or combined, between the different classification versions. This concordance will be available for agencies and organisations.
Using the iwi statistical standard
Who will use the iwi standard?
People who collect and report information and statistics on iwi and iwi-related groups will be using this standard. They include iwi, Māori, government, other organisations, and researchers.
Will iwi use this standard to build their registers?
Māori and iwi data experts have helped build the new standard; it is available for iwi looking to gather information about themselves. Iwi will decide if they wish to use this standard for their registers.
Will other government agencies use this iwi standard?
Using the iwi standard allows iwi and iwi-related groups’ statistics to be compared across surveys and collections. To ensure iwi information is comparable across government, all government agencies that collect iwi information should use the standard.
Will the standard apply to Māori business?
We don’t yet have an approach for applying iwi and iwi-related groupings to Māori business, but we will work towards developing an approach in the future.
Collecting iwi information
Why is iwi information collected? What is it used for?
Iwi information is collected to support decision-making.
- Iwi and Māori use iwi information to support their people’s well-being and development.
- Government uses this information to assist with planning, delivering, and monitoring services for iwi and Māori.
Why is Stats NZ collecting iwi information?
Part of our role as the country’s national statistics office is to provide iwi information and statistics. Iwi, Māori, and government use this information to support decision-making and to monitor well-being and development. Aside from collecting iwi information, we also acknowledge the unique position of Māori as tangata whenua, and the obligations the Treaty of Waitangi places on us as New Zealand’s national statistics office.
Which other government agencies collect iwi information?
Other government agencies that collect iwi information include: the Ministry of Education, the Office of Treaty Settlements, and the Ministry of Social Development. For example, the Ministry of Education collects iwi information from students in early childhood services, schools, and tertiary institutions.
Answering a question about iwi
I belong to several iwi. Can I record them all?
For systems and questionnaires that aren’t limited by space, we recommend you have the option to record as many iwi as possible. Where there are limitations, we recommend providing the option for people to record at least three iwi.
If I can’t see my iwi / hapū on the iwi reference list, can I still record their names when I answer a question on iwi?
Yes. You can write the names of the Māori groupings you belong to – the reference list does not name all iwi and iwi-related groups.
Can I record my urban marae when I answer a question on iwi?
The iwi classification is for collecting iwi and iwi-related groupings, but in some systems where you are able to write in your iwi we can retrieve any response given in answer to the iwi question. This means if you write an urban Māori grouping or marae, then we can count those responses.
Stats NZ is looking to develop a classification (list) for non-kinship Māori groupings, such as urban marae, in the future.
Recommendations for future work
What future work is planned to develop classifications (lists) for other Māori groupings? Will hapū or marae be collected in future?
Written recommendations from the review outlined other areas for future work. These include:
- looking at other ways to better capture rohe or location information
- developing a framework for Māori identity groupings
- partnering with Māori to look at ways to collect and report information on hapū, marae, and non-kinship Māori groupings.
We will consider approaches for progressing this work.
General information about standards
What is a standard?
A standard provides a consistent approach for collecting and reporting information on a specific topic, such as iwi. Standards include information on the descriptions (concept and definition), and conditions for inclusion. By following a standard, information on a topic is collected and reported in a consistent way.
What is a classification (list)?
A classification is created from a topic’s description (concept and definition), but can also be formed from the answers (data) to a topic question. The classification groups the topic information into categories (a list) that are meaningful for people using statistical information.
See What are classifications and standards for more information on classifications and standards.
Where can I find more information about the review?
See Statistical standard for iwi: 2016 review for more information about the review and the papers we have published.
Clusters of whānau (families) where the whānau is usually an extended family grouping consisting of children, parents, often grandparents, and other closely related kin.
Kinship groupings with a shared Māori descent line, such as a waka grouping or confederation.
A traditional meeting place for whānau, hapū, and iwi members (Abridged from: Te Kāhui Māngai).
non-kinship grouping Non-kinship groups connect people of Māori descent, but are not bound by ancestral lineage. Non-kinship groups are typically locality-based.
Genealogy, genealogical table, lineage, descent — reciting whakapapa was, and is, an important skill and reflected the importance of genealogies in Māori society in terms of leadership, land and fishing rights, kinship and status. It is central to all Māori institutions (Abridged from: Māori dictionary).
A family or extended family (Source: Te Kāhui Māngai).
Statistics New Zealand (2015). Crown–Māori engagement and statistical information needs. Retrieved from www.stats.govt.nz.
Statistics New Zealand (2016). New Zealand literature review of Māori groupings. Retrieved from www.stats.govt.nz.
Statistics New Zealand (2016). How should iwi and Māori identity groups be measured across government? A consultation paper. Retrieved from www.stats.govt.nz.
Statistics New Zealand (2016). Discussion of findings from the 2016 review of the statistical standard for iwi. Retrieved from www.stats.govt.nz.
Statistics New Zealand (2016). Recommendations from the 2016 review of the statistical standard for iwi. Retrieved from www.stats.govt.nz.
Moorfield, J (nd). Māori dictionary. Retrieved from http://Māoridictionary.co.nz.
Te Puni Kōkiri (nd). Te Kāhui Māngai: Directory of iwi and Māori organisations. Retrieved from www.tkm.govt.nz.
Published 6 April 2017