Purpose of this paper
Stats NZ, together with an advisory group of Māori and government agency members, has been reviewing the Iwi statistical standard. We used feedback from consultation and submissions, and written recommendations to update the standard.
This document provides a summary of how we reviewed the standard, the changes made to the standard, and what the next steps are in the review.
See Iwi statistical standard: Draft April 2017 to read about the standard.
See Discussion of findings from the 2016 review of the statistical standard for iwi for more about our consultation.
See Iwi statistical standard: 2017 review consultation to provide feedback.
Reviewing the standard
The current iwi classification (list) was first used in the 1991 Census, and has had some groups added since then. Development of the original standard followed in 1994 to provide requirements and guidelines for collecting, organising, and reporting iwi information. This is the first review of the whole standard since it was developed.
The review's purpose was to explore the need for changes to the standard to ensure it continues to meet the needs of people applying the standard and using information based on the standard.
During the review of the iwi standard, we worked with an advisory group of Māori and government agency members, and carried out background research and consultation. Below is a summary of the background work we did for the review.
Background work for the review
September – December 2014: Project planning for the review began. This included meeting with other government agencies.
February 2015: An advisory group with members from Stats NZ and other government agencies formed to begin the review.
March 2015: Interviews carried out with key government agencies to understand their engagement with Māori, and to gather information on their statistical needs.
December 2015: Crown–Māori engagement and statistical information needs, which reports on the interviews carried out with government agencies, published.
December 2015: To progress the review, Māori members joined the advisory group. This group met regularly to discuss findings from the review, to review papers, and to provide expert advice.
April 2016: New Zealand literature review of Māori groupings published.
How should iwi and Māori identity groups be measured across government? published information about the iwi standard and the review's focus.
April – May 2016: Targeted hui and public submissions gathered feedback on the descriptions of iwi (concept and definition), conditions for inclusion, classification (list), and guidelines to use in the iwi standard. We received wide-ranging feedback from iwi, Māori, government, and the public.
October 2016: Findings from interviews with government agencies, submissions, and the literature review brought together and published.
See Discussion of findings from 2016 review of the statistical standard for iwi.
See Recommendations from 2016 review of the statistical standard for iwi, which provides a set of written recommendations for updating the standard. Findings from the first paper fed into this second one.
See Statistical standard for iwi: 2016 review to find the published papers.
Changes to the iwi standard
Between November 2016 and April 2017, we worked with the advisory group to update the Iwi statistical standard. The revisions we made to the standard were guided by the written recommendations and feedback from submissions.
Below is a summary of the key changes to the standard.
Purpose of the iwi standard
The review recommended we highlight the statistical focus of the standard. It is now clear in the standard's purpose that the standard provides guidelines for how to collect, organise, and report iwi and iwi-related groups’ information. The purpose of the standard also recognises that iwi, Māori, and government need iwi and iwi-related group information to support their decision-making.
Descriptions of iwi
Groups included in the iwi classification (list) must fit these descriptions (concept and definition) of iwi, which are used in the updated standard.
Concept: An iwi, or Māori tribe, is one of the largest kinship groupings and is generally made up of several hapū that are all descended from a common ancestor. Hapū are clusters of whānau, where the whānau is usually an extended family grouping consisting of children, parents, often grandparents, and other closely related kin.
Definition: For statistical purposes, an iwi is defined as a whakapapa-based kinship grouping that generally has several hapū and one or more active marae, and a recognised structure that represents the interests of the iwi, such as a rōpū whakahaere, committee, or board.
Conditions for including groups in the iwi classification (list)
The iwi classification was first used in the 1991 Census. Since then, we've included other iwi groups if they met the criteria then in the iwi standard. The review recommended updating the way we add groups to the iwi classification. As a result, we have replaced the existing criteria with a new process and conditions for including groups in the classification.
Groups are to be included in the iwi classification if they are listed as an iwi in other recognised iwi lists, such as Te Kāhui Māngai, Tūhono, or the Māori Fisheries Act 2014. Kinship groups that are not in recognised lists are encouraged to provide information for them to be considered for inclusion.
This includes information about whether a group has:
- a shared Māori descent line and its own traditions
- one or more active marae, these do not need to be physical buildings
- a recognised structure that represents the interests of the iwi, such as a rōpū whakahaere, committee, or board.
Together with other government agencies and in partnership with Māori, Stats NZ will consider the information a group provides for inclusion.
Reporting iwi information
As well as access to iwi and iwi-related groups’ information, feedback from submissions shows people want access to lower-level information, such as hapū or marae. The updated iwi standard describes two ways to share information collected from an iwi question so it is more accessible.
- reporting the number of people in each iwi and iwi-related group in the classification
- reporting the counts of written responses to the iwi question, which allows lower-level information to be shared.This also provides a way for groups not in the iwi classification to access their information.
Both reports can include more information if the counts do not cause a privacy or confidentiality concern by allowing a person to be identified. This extra information could include age, sex, occupation, or areas where people live.
The updated Iwi statistical standard is on our website for feedback. You can provide written feedback on the standard between 6 April 2017 and 4 May 2017. We are also meeting with groups across New Zealand.
See Iwi statistical standard: Draft April 2017 to read the standard.
See Iwi statistical standard consultation: Request for feedback to provide feedback on the changes.
Once submissions have closed on 4 May, we will consider the feedback and finalise the standard. An updated classification will follow later this year.
Contact firstname.lastname@example.org to request an update to the iwi classification if you think your group is missing.
Written recommendations from the review outlined other areas for future work. These include:
- looking at other ways to better capture rohe or location information
- developing a framework for Māori identity groupings
- partnering with Māori to look at ways to collect and report information on hapū, marae, and non-kinship Māori groupings.
We will consider approaches for progressing this work.
Clusters of whanau (families) where the whanau is usually an extended family grouping consisting of children, parents, often grandparents, and other closely related kin.
Kinship groupings with a shared Māori descent line, such as a waka grouping or confederation.
A traditional meeting place for whānau, hapū, and iwi members (Abridged; source: Te Kāhui Māngai).
Genealogy, genealogical table, lineage, descent — reciting whakapapa was, and is, an important skill and reflected the importance of genealogies in Māori society in terms of leadership, land and fishing rights, kinship and status. It is central to all Māori institutions (Abridged; source: Māori dictionary).
A family or extended family (Source: Te Kāhui Māngai).
Statistics New Zealand (2015). Crown–Māori engagement and statistical information needs. Retrieved from www.stats.govt.nz.
Statistics New Zealand (2016). New Zealand literature review of Māori groupings. Retrieved from www.stats.govt.nz.
Statistics New Zealand (2016). How should iwi and Māori identity groups be measured across government? A consultation paper. Retrieved from www.stats.govt.nz.
Statistics New Zealand (2016). Discussion of findings from the 2016 review of the statistical standard for iwi. Retrieved from www.stats.govt.nz.
Statistics New Zealand (2016). Recommendations from the 2016 review of the statistical standard for iwi. Retrieved from www.stats.govt.nz.
Moorfield, J (nd). Māori dictionary. Retrieved from http://Māoridictionary.co.nz.
Te Puni Kōkiri (nd). Te Kāhui Māngai: Directory of iwi and Māori organisations. Retrieved from www.tkm.govt.nz.
Stats NZ (2017). Summary of the iwi statistical standard review. Retrieved from www.stats.govt.nz.
ISBN 978-0-9941463-7-3 (online)
Published 6 April 2017