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Longitudinal Business Database research

This page provides information on how researchers are using the Longitudinal Business Database (LBD).

How integrated data helps researchers

Researchers use integrated data to gain more insight into areas that will improve the social and economic outcomes of New Zealanders. The LBD and the Integrated Data Infrastructure (IDI) are used to answer research, policy, and evaluation questions across many subject areas. The research is used to better inform decision-makers to help solve complex issues that affect us all, such as employment and trade.

Research projects and reports

Select a link for information about projects and reports by topic:

Research projects

The following descriptions are in date order by each category (the year of application is recorded in the code number, after ‘MAA’).

Agriculture

MAA2017-48 Drought and flood risks for the agricultural sector in New Zealand

This project, part of Farnaz’s doctoral dissertation, intends to use LBD data to investigate drought and flood risks on farming productivity and profits in New Zealand. It also will develop quantifications of the projected impacts of future climate change on the agricultural sector, via changes in the frequency and intensity of floods and storms.

Farnaz Pourzand
Victoria University of Wellington
Contact: Farnaz.Pourzand@vuw.ac.nz

MAA2012-12 Primary industries firm-level information redesign

The Ministry of Primary Industries (MPI) is looking to explore alternative data sources for its Farm Monitoring Programme (FMP). The current FMP is time and resource intensive, the data we currently collect has a small sample size, and it does not cover poultry, pork or forestry. MPI has identified that Annual Enterprise Survey (AES) data could be a good alternative source of data for the FMP, possibly supplemented by other data sources, and wishes to explore/test the data on its level of usability for the FMP.

As AES is the fundamental data source of annual provisional estimate of gross domestic product, AES could be used to explore the economic significance by sector by financial performance/financial position. This could also be used to determine if poultry and other livestock farming is economically significant enough to be considered for our reporting purposes. The sample size for the horticulture sector in the FMP is very small may not represent the diverse nature of this sector, and this exploratory work can assess the validity of some of the MPI’s existing work.

Two additional elements to the project are 1) to undertake cross-sector comparisons using the AES data and 2) examine the utility of a combined AES and Agriculture Production Survey (APS) datasets for addressing other information gaps in the MPI.

This project is an extension of previous work conducted between Statistics New Zealand and the MPI, and will also build upon work being conducted by the Ministry for the Environment (MfE) examining the AES and APS datasets together.

Stephen Murray and Meena Satishkumar
Ministry for Primary Industries
Contact: Alice.Marfell-Jones@mpi.govt.nz

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Business financials

MAA2017-47 Firms performance and international financial cycles

How do New Zealand firms respond to movements in the global financial markets?

We are expecting that changes in global financial market conditions affect firms’ choice of financing their business operations and therefore their business performance. We would draw policy implications given our findings.

Fang Yao
Reserve Bank of New Zealand and University of Cape Town
Contact: Fang.yao@rbnz.govt.nz

MAA2015-33 Emissions Pricing Impacts

This project will examine the research question: how does the imposition of different prices on domestic greenhouse gas emissions affect the international competitiveness of different New Zealand industries?

Elizabeth Numan, Maria Botes, Mark Dean, Bryan Field, Jason Jina, James Kerr, Jamie Kerr, Andrew Millar
Ministry of Business, Innovation and Employment
Contact: bryan.field@mbie.govt.nz

MAA2014-17 Firm behaviour and corporate tax reform in New Zealand

The objective of this project is to examine firm-level responses to corporate tax reform in New Zealand. We will focus on two dimensions of firm behaviour that are central from a policy perspective. First, we will examine the extent to which firms engage in intertemporal profit shifting due to tax reforms, which will yield insights about the (short-run) sensitivity of taxable income to changes in the tax burden. Second, we will investigate the effects of changes in taxation on firm investment. This will shed light on the long-run consequences of taxation, given that private investment is a key ingredient of economic growth.

In our empirical specification, we will exploit two corporate tax reforms. In 2005, depreciation allowances were changed in various ways so that the firm-level effects of this tax reform were determined by asset ratios. In 2008, the corporate tax rate changed; here, domestically and foreign owned firms were affected differently. In both cases, we will hence be able to differentiate various groups of firms that differ in terms of their lax treatment to implement difference-in-difference type of specifications. Our data on taxable income and other firm-level variables come from the Longitudinal Business Database which covers the 2001–11 period.

John Creedy, Norman Gemmell, Florian Misch, and Lynda Sanderson
The Treasury
Contact: Angela.Mellish@treasury.govt.nz

MAA2011-01 Firm behaviour and linkages to economic and fiscal policy

This project will investigate (i) a range of determinants of New Zealand’s firms’ performance and worker outcomes and (ii) the impact of economic and fiscal conditions on firm performance and behaviour. The main aim of this work is to inform thinking on New Zealand’s productivity performance and the role of government in supporting firm performance. There are also likely to be significant spillovers into other arms of public policy.

Firm performance and behaviour impact substantially on living standards of New Zealanders. A comprehensive understanding of firm performance encapsulates a range of potential outcomes, including levels of productivity and profitability, firm size, and worker outcomes. Developing policy to foster aggregate economic growth in New Zealand requires a better understanding of the determinants of performance at the micro (firm and worker) level.

Similarly, the determinants of firm performance include firm-specific factors (eg business practices), regional factors (eg infrastructure provision), and the national environment (eg exchange rate levels and volatility). The interrelationships between these and firm performance are complex and better understanding the dynamic processes linking these will improve the Treasury’s broad understanding of the macro economy. Results from this work will also inform public debate more broadly in areas such as New Zealand’s engagement with the world economy.

The impacts of changing economic conditions on firms are likely to be heterogeneous and depend crucially on firm characteristics. In order for Treasury to provide quality advice on a range of potential taxation and government spending changes, it is necessary to have a clear understanding of how such changes might impact on different types of firms, and the distribution of firms affected.

Lynda Sanderson, Penny Mok, David Law, and Lisa Meehan
The Treasury
Contact: Gerald.Minnee@treasury.govt.nz

MAA2010-12 New Zealand's company income tax base

Company income taxation is an important contributor to the New Zealand tax base. It accounted for about 17 percent of the total tax collection in the year to June 2009 and 14 percent in the year to June 2010. But Inland Revenue currently does not collect comprehensive information about companies. In particular, no reliable and complete data is available from companies’ financial statements. This project would investigate Statistics New Zealand’s Longitudinal Business Database (LBD) to analyse the factors that influence the company income tax base. It would first provide some descriptive analysis. It would then apply a semiparametric approach to examine distributions of income tax paid by companies and its components across firms and over time. The results would be used to improve Inland Revenue’s and Treasury’s tax policy advice and costings and company tax forecasting methods.

Iris Claus, Sri Farley, David Law
Inland Revenue Department
Contact: iris.claus@ird.govt.nz

Back to list of projects and reports

Business practices

MAA2017-21 Managerial quality and firm productivity: Evidence from New Zealand Longitudinal Microdata

The impact of managerial quality on firm productivity has been the subject of academia and policy maker for several decades, and despite the extensive research in this area, that for New Zealand (NZ) is sparse. Many of the research on the governance role of managerial quality on firm productivity are typically derived from studies on publicly listed firms in the United States (US) and the United Kingdom (UK). Unlike the US and the UK, NZ has a smaller market and comprises mainly of small and medium size enterprises. Hence, firms in NZ are likely to perform differently and thus the impacts in which management can have on production would be different. NZ also presences an interesting case to study because despite the good quality of its institutions its productivity is under performing relative to other advanced OECD economies (Barnes, Eris, Dougherty, Briard, & Bouis, 2013).

Thus, by investigating the impact of managerial quality on firm productivity in NZ using longitudinal microdata this study will help to: (i) explain the source(s) of the productivity gap between NZ’s laggard firms and those firms that operate at the national and global productivity frontier (Conway, Meehan, & Zheng, 2015); and (ii) provide insights as to ‘why seemingly non-rival technologies do not diffuse to NZ firms to the same extent as they do amongst the frontier firms (Andrews, Criscuolo, & Gal, 2015).

Understanding these will help us to better explain the persistent productivity gap across firms and countries, and thus contribute to the longstanding debate as to why convergence in per capita GDP across countries as predicted by the conventional theory of the firm has not taken place (Baumol, 1986; DeLong, 1988).

Sodany Tong
Ministry for Business, Innovation and Employment
Contact: Sodany.tong@uon.edu.au

MAA2016-36 The use of Information and Communications Technology in NZ businesses – an economic growth and skills perspective

MBIE will undertake research on the use of Information Communications Technology (ICT) by New Zealand businesses to ascertain how the use of ICT can enable productivity growth, and also how recruitment difficulties in the ICT sector act as a constraint on productivity growth, and how businesses are reacting to these challenges.

The researchers will use data collected in the Business Operations Survey (BOS) between 2006 and 2014, and other data within the Longitudinal Business Database (LBD) to do this research. At the conclusion of this project it is anticipated that we will understand much more about how the use of ICT in NZ businesses leads to productivity gains, and how recruitment difficulties in the ICT sector can be a constraint on business growth.

MBIE will take a qualitative perspective on these issues, and may conduct qualitative interviews with some firms to explore key themes from the microdata research.

The output of this research will be a short research report that will be made publically available on MBIE’s website.

Nicola Brown, Francis Powley, Tony Waldegrave, Luke Smith, Lynda Sanderson, and Dan Harvey
Ministry for Business, Innovation and Employment
Contact: dan.harvey@mbie.govt.nz

MAA2014-33 Managing safe, productive, and profitable workplaces: Trade-off or win–win?

The government aims to improve productivity and economic growth while also reducing workplace injury. This research will investigate the relationship between human resource management (HRM) practices, management of health and safety responsibilities, and worker and firm outcomes. It can be seen as broken down in to three main research questions:

  • Are better-managed firms also better at health and safety (management)? 
  • Do better-managed firms have less workplace accidents and does this help explain performance differences across firms?
  • How much of the apparent relationship in (2) is due to worker sorting?

Michelle Poland
Worksafe New Zealand
Contact: michelle.poland@worksafe.govt.nz

MAA2014-32 New Zealand business customer segmentation

Working towards Better Public Services, MBIE, ACC, Callaghan Innovation, Inland Revenue, the Ministry for Primary Industries, Customs, New Zealand Trade and Enterprise and Statistics New Zealand are committed to making it easier for businesses to engage with government.

This project will seek to understand if there are distinct characteristics of groups of businesses that government should prioritise when considering services delivered to them.

Paul Nalder and Nathan Schofield
Ministry of Business, Innovation & Employment
Contact: nathan.schofield@mbie.govt.nz

MAA2013-23 Using the LBD to better understand New Zealand’s productivity and improve policy

The Productivity Hub is a partnership of agencies focused on better understanding New Zealand’s productivity experience and the role of policy in improving productivity growth A main focus for the Hub is to bring together research on productivity issues in New Zealand, including the production of a Forward Looking Agenda of Research (FLARE).

It complements the Productivity Commission’s existing project, MAA2011/06, which examines firm and household behaviours and their linkages to productivity and economic performance. This project represents a wider programme of work under the auspices of the Productivity Hub including both the undertaking of policy relevant research and the building of capability across the Hub’s partner agencies and the wider public sector.

Proposed research topic areas

  • Productivity measurement, estimation and benchmarks 
  • Measurement and estimation using microdata 
  • Growth decompositions 
  • Productive technologies 
  • R&D and innovation 
  • Productive industries 
  • Productive locations 
  • Agglomeration effects 
  • Productive connections 
  • Infrastructure 
  • FDI 
  • Trade.

Paul Conway, Adam Jaffe, Michele Morris, Matt Thirkettle, Dave Mare, Isabelle Sin, Guanyu Zheng, and Lisa Meehan
New Zealand Productivity Commission

Contact: Paul.Conway@productivity.govt.nz

MAA2012-16 Firm performance, productivity, innovation, and skills

The purpose of this research programme is to investigate: 

  • The persistence of skill shortages and their impact on firm performance 
  • Cyclical labour market adjustment 
  • Innovation, skills, firm productivity, and performance .

Sarah Crichton
Ministry of Business, Innovation and Employment
Contact: sarah.crichton@treasury.govt.nz

MAA2011-07 Drivers and impacts of transport productivity performance

One of the government’s long-term outcomes for transport is to have “an efficient transport system that supports high level of economic productivity, provides strong international connections for freight, business and tourism, and meets international obligations” (MOT SOI 2011-2014). To help achieve this outcome, the Ministry plans to identify options to enhance the contribution of the transport sector to economic growth and productivity. To inform policy development and investment decisions, we need to understand what drives productivity for various transport services (by mode and transport movement type) and what the impacts of and constraints for productivity on economic growth are for these services.

This research will employ microdata from the Datalab to perform sub-industry level analyses (note) via a mixture of data-matching, input-output and regression techniques. The research report will summarise the key drivers of productivity performance and distinguish any variations by different transport services (including road and bridge construction), where possible. It also intends to investigate the inter-connections between productivity and profitability, prices, capital utilisation and economic growth.

Tantri Tantirigama and Joanne Leung
Ministry of Transport
Contact: j.leung@transport.govt.nz

MAA2011-06 Firm and household behaviour and linkages to productivity and economic performance

This project will investigate a range of determinants of New Zealand firms' productivity performance and economic performance more generally. The work will inform the main functions of the ProCom: providing information to inform specific inquiries related to productivity; undertaking and publishing research into, and promoting public understanding of, productivity related matters. Given the Commission's role to provide independent policy advice to government, there is also likely to be significant spill-overs into other arms of public policy.

Productivity is one of the immediate drivers of income growth and therefore is important to the well-being of New Zealanders. A comprehensive understanding of firm productivity performance encapsulates a range of potential outcomes. Informing productivity related policy to foster aggregate economic growth in New Zealand requires a better understanding of the determinants of productivity at the micro (firm and worker) level.

Similarly, the determinants of firm performance include firm specific factors (eg business practices), regional factors (eg infrastructure provision), and the national environment (eg exchange rate levels and volatility). The interrelationships between these and firm productivity performance are complex and better understanding the dynamic processes linking these will improve NZPC's broad understanding of the macro economy. Results from this work will also inform public debate more broadly around New Zealand's productivity performance.

The impact of policy settings which may have an impact on the productivity of firms is likely to be quite heterogeneous and depend on firm characteristics. A better understanding of what these characteristics are, their distributional aspects, and the inter-relationships between them is expected to enhance the understanding of the NZPC and therefore its ability to provide sound policy advice to government.

Lisa Meehan and Guanyu Zheng
NZ Productivity Commission
Contact: Paul.Conway@productivity.govt.nz

MAA2010-11 MED IBULLD intellectual property (IP) and productivity

Ministry of Business, Innovation and Employment

MAA2007-05 Agglomeration Elasticities

Land Transport New Zealand/Motu Economic and Public Policy Research

MAA2007-03 Statistical analysis, use and impact of government business programmes

Ministry of Business, Innovation & Employment

MAA2007-02 Determinants of firm performance

Ministry of Business, Innovation & Employment 

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Employment

MAA2016-55 Entrepreneurship and job creation

We address two research questions: what characteristics are associated with entrepreneurship (starting a self-employed business); and which sorts of entrepreneurs are more successful?

Success in entrepreneurship will focus on the transition from owner-operator to employer because: job creation is a good metric of small business success; the transition represents an important “step-change,” from business operations, risk and regulatory perspectives; and such transitions may be responsible for a material proportion of aggregate new jobs.

This work will have a particular focus on business owner ethnicity, but will also consider whether other worker characteristics (age, sex, skill, etc) and prior job characteristics (earnings, industry, etc) also influence the decision to start a business or subsequent job creation.

Andrew Hume, Beth Goodwin, Bettina Schaer, Bryan Chapple, Corey Allan, Donna Purdue, Liz Te Amo, Lynda Sanderson, Matalena Leaupepe, Richard Fabling, Sharon Pells, Telea Andrews, and Tipene Chrisp
Ministry of Business, Innovation and Employment
Contact: richard.fabling@stats.govt.nz

MAA2015-51 Labour mobility as a channel for productivity knowledge spillovers

This project seeks to look at labour mobility as a channel for productivity knowledge spillovers. Researchers want to look at how knowledge from companies with high productivity shifts to companies with lower productivity when individuals move to a new company.

The LBD will be used to work out productivity measures for different firms and to control for the characteristics of these firms. The IDI will be used to investigate the effects of different characteristics of workers. It will also measure the benefits to workers in terms of remuneration for their ability to pass on their knowledge in regards to productivity. This research will also look at the flow of information/workers across and within different industries.

Michael Kirker and Lynda Sanderson
The Treasury
Contact: lynda.sanderson@treasury.govt.nz

MAA2015-10 Government policy and the labour market

Motu are working on a large project that will investigate how government policy affects the behaviour and outcomes of the labour market. This section of the project will be investigating the effect of the 90-day trial periods of employment and how its introduction has affected firms' hiring policies and attitudes, and how those changes have then affected disadvantaged job seekers.

Nathan Chappell, Dr David Maré, and Dr Isabelle Sin
Motu Economic and Public Policy Research
Contact: isabelle.sin@motu.org.nz

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Innovation

MAA2016-01 Intangibles, productivity and innovation

This project will study the links between intangible investment, competition and productivity, using various measures of innovative and intangible activity including the business operations survey measures and intellectual property office of New Zealand patent data.

Paul Conway, Nathan Chappell, Adam Jaffe
New Zealand Productivity Commission
Contact: Patrick.Nolan@productivity.govt.nz

MAA2012-18 Developing science and innovation measures

In order to determine the appropriateness of MBIE’s policies and improve them there is a need to understand and measure outputs and associated outcomes of the science and innovation ecosystem, specifically those outputs and outcomes that can be associated with MBIE inputs.

Commitments have been made to ministers and a select committee to deliver a suite of measures of the science and innovation ecosystem by mid-2013.

The research question to be investigated is: What measures can be developed in order to determine, demonstrate and improve the efficacy of MBIEs Science Skills and Innovation (SSI) policies?

The subject of the research will be the various forms of business funding, as by its nature business funding better suits quantification and measurement than pure science funding.

Chris Barnett
Ministry of Business, Innovation & Employment
Contact: Nuran.Cinlar@mbie.govt.nz

International trade and tourism

MAA2014-26 International revenue growth and exporting businesses – assessing the coverage and impact of NZTE

ZTE works closely with a set of committed firms to help them increase their international revenue (that is, income from trade in goods and services, royalties, and overseas investment). This project seeks to do two things:

  • Measure and understand the opportunity to further work with NZ exporting firms – NZTE has received funding to expand its set of customers and needs guidance about where to seek appropriate export firms. 
  • Understand the impact that NZTE has on this group’s international revenue, and whether it is effectively identifying these committed firms with which to engage.

Outcomes from the project include a distributional understanding of growth in sets of firm’s international revenue conditional on a number of demographic factors such as total turnover, number of FTEs, sector, regional location of head office, or the length of time engaged in overseas markets. Moreover, the project will produce a model to predict which firms are exporting firms (or could be) and a demographic breakdown of firms that are highly likely to be exporters.

John Holt
NZ Trade & Enterprise
Contact: john.holt@nzte.govt.nz

MAA2009-06 Service export sector characteristics and performance

Ministry of  Foreign Affairs and Trade

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Research reports

Business financials

Business participation in government assistance programmes: 2013 update (2015)
Statistics NZ and Ministry of Business, Innovation and Employment.

Estimating firm-level effective tax rates and the user cost of capital in New Zealand (2013)
Victoria University of Wellington (+ Motu & Treasury)
Richard Fabling, Norman Gemmell, Richard Kneller, and Lynda Sanderson 

Impact of emissions pricing on New Zealand manufacturing: A short-run analysis (PDF, 111 pages, 1.2mb) (2010)
Ministry of Economic Development
Matthew Bartleet, Kris Iyer, Gillian Lawrence, Elisabeth Numan-Parsons, and Adolf Stroombergen

Competition in New Zealand industries: Measurement and evidence (2009)
Ministry of Economic Development, New Zealand Association of  Economists
Philip Stevens

The need for speed: Impacts of internet connectivity on firm productivity (2009)
Motu Economic and Public Policy Research
Arthur Grimes, Cleo Ren, and Philip Stevens

A comparison of qualitative and quantitative firm performance measures (PDF, 70 pages, 1.8mb) (2008)
Ministry of Economic Development, Reserve Bank of New Zealand, Motu Economic and Public Policy Research
Richard Fabling, Arthur Grimes ,and Philip Stevens

Some rise by sin, and some by virtue fall: Firm dynamics, market structure and performance (PDF, 44 pages, 1.5mb) (2008)
Ministry of Economic Development (MBIE)
Richard Fabling, Arthur Grimes, Lynda Sanderson, and Philip Stevens

Back to list of projects and reports

Business practices

Productivity distribution and drivers of productivity growth in the construction industry (2016)
Motu Economic and Public Policy Research
Adam Jaffe, Trinh Le, and Nathan Chappell

Competition in New Zealand industries: Measurement and evidence (2016)
Ministry of Business, Innovation and Employment

Using land for housing – final report (2015)
New Zealand Productivity Commission

Trade over distance for New Zealand firms: Measurement and implications (2014)
New Zealand Productivity Commission

Patterns of business location in Auckland (2011)
Motu Economic and Public Policy Research

Agglomeration elasticities and firm heterogeneity (2010)
Motu Economic and Public Policy Research

HR practices and New Zealand firm performance: What matters and who does it? (2010)
Motu Economic and Public Policy Research
Arthur Grimes and Richard Fabling

NZTE output class 1 evaluation (PDF) (2010)
Ministry of Economic Development 

The "suite" smell of success: Complementary personnel practices and firm performance (2009)
Reserve Bank of New Zealand and Motu Economic and Public Policy Research
Richard Fabling and Arthur Grimes

Comparative analysis of enterprise data (CAED) conference 2009

New Zealand Association of Economists (NZAE) Conference 2009 

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Employment

Firm-level hiring difficulties: Persistence, business cycle and local labour market influences (2013)
Motu Economic and Public Policy Research
Richard Fabling and Dave Maré

The incidence and persistence of cyclical job loss in New Zealand (2013)
Motu Economic and Public Policy Research
Richard Fabling and Dave Maré 

The Impact of wage subsidies on jobseekers’ outcomes and firm employment (PDF) (2013)
Motu Economic and Public Policy Research
Sarah Crichton and David C. Maré

A good worker is hard to find: Skills shortages in New Zealand firms (PDF) (2012)
Ministry of Economic Development (MBIE)
Penny Mok, Geoff Mason, Philip Stevens, and Jason Timmins

Business strategy and skills in New Zealand (PDF) (2012)
Ministry of Economic Development (MBIE)
Philip Stevens  

Cyclical labour market adjustment in New Zealand: The response of firms to the global financial crisis and its implications for workers (PDF) (2012)
Motu Economic and Public Policy Research
Richard Fabling and Dave Maré 

Performance pay systems and the gender wage gap (2012)
Motu Economic and Public Policy Research
Richard Fabling, Arthur Grimes, and Dave Maré 

To make or buy (skills): An analysis of training decisions using microdata (PDF) (2012)
Ministry of Economic Development and Ministry of Business, Innovation & Employment
Geoff Mason, Penny Mok, Peter Nunns, Philip Stevens, and Jason Timmins

Productivity and local workforce composition (2011)
Motu Economic and Public Policy Research
Richard Fabling and Dave Maré

Job mobility and wage dynamics (PDF) (2009)
New Zealand Association of Economics, Statistics New Zealand, New Zealand Department of Labour and Motu Economic and Public Policy Research
Dean R Hyslop and David C. Maré

Labour productivity in Auckland firms (PDF) (2008)
Ministry of Economic Development (MBIE)
David C. Maré

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Innovation

Measuring the innovative activity of New Zealand firms (2015)
New Zealand Productivity Commission and Motu Economic and Public Policy Research
Simon Wakeman and Trinh Le 

The impact of R&D subsidy on innovation: A study on New Zealand firms (PDF) (2015)
Motu Economic and Public Policy Research
Adam Jaffe and Trinh Le 

Hiring new ideas: International migration and firm innovation in New Zealand (PDF) (2014)
Motu Economic and Public Policy Research
Keith McLeod, Richard Fabling, and David C. Maré 

Immigration and innovation (2011)
Institute for the Study of Labor
David C. Maré, Richard Fabling, and Steven Stillman

Science, technology and innovation indicators in a changing world (2007)
OECD 

Back to list of projects and reports

International trade and tourism

Characteristics of New Zealand’s commercial services exporters (PDF) (2014)
New Zealand Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade 

Export performance, invoice currency, and heterogeneous exchange rate pass-through (2013)
The Treasury
Richard Fabling and Lynda Sanderson 

Any port in a storm? The impact of new port infrastructure on New Zealand exporter behavior  (2011)
Reserve Bank of New Zealand
Richard Fabling, Arthur Grimes, and Lynda Sanderson 

Foreign acquisition and the performance of New Zealand firms (2011)
The Treasury
Richard Fabling and Lynda Sanderson

Cutting the hedge: Exporters’ dynamic currency hedging behavior (2010)
Motu Economic and Public Policy Research
Richard Fabling and Arthur Grimes 

Exporting and performance: Market entry, expansion and destination characteristics (2010)
Reserve Bank of New Zealand
Richard Fabling and Lynda Sanderson 

Exporting and performance: The impact of destination characteristics on learning effects (2009)
Reserve Bank of New Zealand
Richard Fabling and Lynda Sanderson

Multi-Product Exporters and Product Turnover Behaviour of New Zealand Exporters (2009)
The Treasury
Müge Adalet 

Productivity spillovers from foreign direct investment in New Zealand: Firm level evidence  (2009, published 2015)
Ministry of Economic Development 
Tinh Doan, David C. Maré, and Kris Iyer

2014 version paper (PDF)
Tinh Doan, Kris Iyer, and David C. Maré

Link to first draft – please do not quote (PDF)
Kris Iyer, Philip Stevens, and K.K. Tang

The evolution of export unit values: Some stylised facts (PDF) (2009)
Reserve Bank of New Zealand
Richard Fabling, Sophie Joyce, and Lynda Sanderson 

Do exporters cut the hedge? Who hedges and why (2008)
Ministry of Economic Development and Motu Economic and Public Policy Research
Richard Fabling and Arthur Grimes 

Firm level patterns in merchandise trade (2008)
Ministry of Economic Development (MBIE) and Reserve Bank of New Zealand
Richard Fabling and Lynda Sanderson 

Over the hedge? Exporters’ optimal and selective hedging choices (2008)
Reserve Band of New Zealand
Richard Fabling and Arthur Grimes 

The performance of N exporters: Some firm-level evidence (2007)
Reserve Bank of New Zealand
Richard Fabling  

Page updated 15 November 2017

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